Copyright and the media

After the CATS session looking at copyright, it re-enforced the point that you cannot use something without permission.

There are millions of photos and videos available on the internet, but unless a free licence is issued by the owner, then any organisation that uses them without express permission can be liable for it’s use.

An example of this is the recent story reported in the Daily Telegraph , regarding the EU document that has been sent to every house in the UK, campaigning for the UK to stay in the EU.  The document contained a photo of Felixstowe docks taken by Mike Page.  Mr Page complained as the photo was used without licence, and has accepted a donation to charity as way of recompense.

I have always been of the belief that you cannot use something without permission.  At the end of the day, you can’t walk into Asda or Tesco, and take something to use without expecting to pay for it at the checkout.

Another incident of using photos without permission comes from America, where the Donald Trump campaign for President used a photo of an American Bald Eagle.  The photo was used on promotional marketing materials that were available for purchase.

The copyright owners were willing to settle the case privately, but the Trump campaign were unwilling to do so.  This has turned into a full legal battle where the photographers are seeking damages for copyright infringement.

These two examples are just the tip of the iceberg, and the issue could potentially get worse over time unless journalists and also the general public are made aware of the issue.

There are many ways in which internet content can be kept legal.  The first one is to simply ask the owner of the content if it can be used.  This could result in a flat refusal, or permission being granted for non-commercial and/or commercial use.

Photos and videos can be purchased from commercial companies where you have a licence to use, providing you stay within the rules of the licence.

Another option is to use the creative commons licence, where a photographer has expressly given a licence for content to be used, but again this licence must be strictly adhered to.

A final point, which is one that involves common courtesy, is to always credit the owner of the photograph.  Their hard work enabled the photo, so their name should be mentioned to recognise it.

Democratic Unionist Party

DUP Logo

DUP Logo

The Democratic Unionist Party was formed in 1971 by Desmond Boal, and the man who led the party for much of its history, Reverend Dr Ian Paisley, and is currently the largest of all political parties in Northern Ireland with 8 seats.

It initially found success within the Northern Ireland Assembly in 1973, where it had 8 representatives, and also gained 1 seat in the 2 General Elections held in 1974, the sole representative being Dr Paisley, who gained a majority of 27,631 votes in the February vote and 34,497 in the election held in October.

During the next 4 elections, the DUP held 3 seats within the 17 that were available within Northern Ireland, Dr Paisley and Peter Robinson retaining their seats in all 4, with John McQuade winning in 1979, before losing in 1983, and William McCrea winning in 1983, 1987, and 1992.

The DUP lost another of it’s seat in the 1997 General Election, with Paisley and Robinson, the Westminster representatives of the DUP, and this election saw major changes in Northern Ireland after the many years of “The Troubles”.

After the election, the DUP were involved in the negotiations to try to reunite Northern Ireland, but withdrew as Sinn Féin were invited to the discussions, while the Irish Republican Army (IRA), with whom Sinn Féin had links, had failed to surrender all of their weapons.

In the 2001 General Election, the DUP increased their seats to 5, and then to 9 in 2005, the highest number of seats in their history, and representing 50 per cent of the seats available in Northern Ireland.

Subsequently, the number of seats has been reduced to 8, in the 2010, and 2015 General Elections.

Dr Paisley led the party until 2008, when he stepped down, before leaving Parliament in 2010.  His long time deputy, Peter Robinson took over as leader until 2015, when he also stepped down, and Arlene Foster was elected as leader, taking the role from 17 December 2015.

CATS Reflection – Current Cabinet Members (November 2015)

Cabinet of the United Kingdom - 2015

Cabinet of the United Kingdom – 2015

The Cabinet of the United Kingdom is formed by the Prime Minster of the current Government.  It consists of 21 Members Of Parliament with senior roles within Government and together with the Prime Minster, they collectively make decisions about Government policy, that the Government then take to the House of Commons for the chamber to debate.

In addition to the 22 cabinet ministers, there are another 8 people who attend cabinet meetings, but are not members of the cabinet.

In the session, we discussed about the role that the cabinet have in decision making, and how many of the names that the group could identify.  There weren’t many we could name from memory, but the names are recognisable, and will become more so as this parliament continues through to 2020 and the next General Election.

As part of the reflection, I was asked to research a cabinet minister, and reflect on it here.  However, in my thirst for knowledge about the subject, I decided to research all 22 current members (November 2015), and the additional 8 people who attend cabinet meetings as part of their current roles.

Members of the Cabinet

Prime Minister, First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service Rt Hon David Cameron MP (Con)
Chancellor of the Exchequer and First Secretary of State Rt Hon George Osborne MP (Con)
Leader of the House of Lords and Lord Privy Seal The Rt Hon. the Baroness Stowell of Beeston MBE (Con)
Home Secretary Rt Hon Theresa May MP (Con)
Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs Rt Hon Philip Hammond MP (Con)
Lord Chancellor and Secretary of State for Justice Rt Hon Michael Gove MP (Con)
Secretary of State for Defence Rt Hon Michael Fallon MP (Con)
Secretary of State for Business, Innovation and Skills Rt Hon Sajid Javid MP (Con)
Secretary of State for Work and Pensions Rt Hon Iain Duncan Smith MP (Con)
Secretary of State for Health Rt Hon Jeremy Hunt MP (Con)
Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government Rt Hon Greg Clark MP (Con)
Secretary of State for Education Rt Hon Nicky Morgan MP (Con)
Secretary of State for International Development Rt Hon Justine Greening MP (Con)
Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change Rt Hon Amber Rudd MP (Con)
Secretary of State for Transport Rt Hon Patrick McLoughlin MP (Con)
Secretary of State for Scotland Rt Hon David Mundell MP (Con)
Secretary of State for Northern Ireland Rt Hon Theresa Villiers MP (Con)
Secretary of State for Wales Rt Hon Stephen Crabb MP (Con)
Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport Rt Hon John Whittingdale MP (Con)
Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs Rt Hon Elizabeth Truss MP (Con)
Lord President of the Council and Leader of the House of Commons Rt Hon Chris Grayling MP (Con)
Minister for Government Policy and Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster Rt Hon Oliver Letwin MP (Con)

Politicians who attend Cabinet Meetings

Minister for the Cabinet Office and Paymaster General Rt Hon Matthew Hancock MP (Con)
Minister of State for Universities and Science Rt Hon Jo Johnson MP (Con)
Chief Whip in the House of Commons and Parliamentary Secretary to the Treasury Rt Hon Mark Harper MP (Con)
Chief Secretary to the Treasury Rt Hon Greg Hands MP (Con)
Minister without Portfolio Rt Hon Robert Halfon MP (Con)
Attorney General for England and Wales and Advocate General for Northern Ireland Rt Hon Jeremy Wright MP (Con)
Minister of State for Employment Rt Hon Priti Patel MP (Con)
Minister of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs Rt Hon The Baroness Anelay of St John’s DBE PC (Con)

Members of the Cabinet – Rt Hon Philip Hammond MP – Profile

Philip Hammond

Philip Hammond

Philip Hammond is the incumbent Member of Parliament for Runnymede and Weybridge, and holds the position of Foreign Secretary having being appointed in July 2014.

Born in Epping, Essex in 1955, he was educated at state schools in Brentwood, before reading for a BA in Philosophy, Politics and Economics at University College, Oxford, where he graduated with a first class honours degree.

On leaving Oxford, Hammond worked for Speywood Laboratories, eventually becoming a director in Speywood Medical.  After leaving Speywood, he was a director at Castlemead, a healthcare and nursing company.  He also worked for CMA Consultants, as a consultant to various organisations including the World Bank, and to the Government of Malawi, a role he held until entering Parliament in 1997.

His polticial career started as chairman of the Lewisham East Conservative Association in 1989, and also ran for Parliament in the Newham North East by-election in 1994.  He was selected as the parliamentary candidate for Runnymede and Weybridge, a new constituency created from the former seats of Chertsey and Walton and North West Surrey.

At the 1997 General Election, he won by a majority of 9,875 from the Labour candidate Ian Peacock.  Hammond has retained the seat ever since, with the 4 elections of 2001, 2005, 2010, and 2015.

On entering Parliament, he served on the Environment, Transport and the Regions Select Committee, before roles as Spokesman for Health, and then Trade and Industry followed, before working in the Shadow Office of the Deputy Prime Minister.  After the 2005 General Election, Hammond was given the role of Shadow Chief Secretary to the Treasury under Michael Howard, but was moved to Shadow Secretary of State for Work and Pensions by David Cameron upon his election to the leader of the Conservative Party.  In the July 2007 reshuffle, he was moved back to the Department for Work and Pensions.

Following the 2010 General Election, he was appointed as Secretary of State for Transport, replacing Lord Adonis, a role he held until October 2011, when he was moved to be Secretary of State for Defence, after the resignation of Liam Fox over allegations about allowing a close friend access to the Ministry of Defence.

In the July 2014 reshuffle, David Cameron moved Hammond from Defence to the role of Foreign Secretary at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office.

The role of Foreign Secretary has overall responsibility for the Foreign and Commonwealth Office.  Their remit includes British nationals overseas, The Commonwealth, and UK Overseas Territories.



Members of the Cabinet – Rt Hon Chris Grayling MP – Profile

Chris Grayling

Chris Grayling

Chris Grayling is the incumbent Member of Parliament for Epsom and Ewell, and was elected in 2001 with a majority of 10,080.  His parliamentary roles are Leader of the House of Commons and Lord President of the Council.

Grayling was born in London in 1962, and grew up in Buckinghamshire.  Educated at the Royal Grammar School in High Wycombe, before going on to read history at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, leaving with a 2:1 BA degree.

After graduating, Grayling joined BBC News as a trainee in 1985, before leaving to join Channel 4 in 1988 as editor on the Business Daily programme.  He rejoined the BBC, working as a business development manager between 1991 and 1993, before departing to work in independent television production companies.  Prior to entering parliament, Grayling worked for Burson Marsteller, a public relations and communications company, as a management consultant.

His political career started with selection as the candidate for Warrington South, in the 1997 General Election where he was beaten by Helen Southworth, the Labour candidate.  During this time, he was elected as a councillor on Merton council in 1998.

After his election win in 2001, initially served on the Environment, Transport and the Regions Select Committee, before promotion to the Opposition Whips’ Office, and then Spokesman on Health in 2002.  Following Michael Howard taking over as Conservative leader, Grayling was given the role as Spokesman on Education and Skills.  He has also served as Shadow Leader of the House of Commons.  Under David Cameron, Grayling was given roles as Shadow Secretary of State for Transport, Shadow Secretary of State for Work and Pensions, and in 2009, Shadow Home Secretary.


After the 2010 General Election, Grayling was given the role in the coalition cabinet of Minister of State for Work and Pensions, and in the 2012 reshuffle, was appointed as Lord Chancellor and Secretary of State for Justice.  Following the 2015 General Election, where the Conservative Party had an overall majority, he was given the role of Leader of the House of Commons and Lord President of the Council.

Grayling has also written several books on subjects as varied as post-war anglo-american relations, and the history of Joseph Holt, a brewer from the North West of England.


Members of the Cabinet – Rt Hon Elizabeth Truss MP – Profile

Liz Truss

Liz Truss

Elizabeth Truss was elected as the Conservative MP for south west Norfolk in 2010, beating the Liberal Democrat candidate, Stephen Morgan into second place with a majority of 13,140.   She was appointed Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs in July 2014.

Born in 1975, Truss was born in Oxford, but grew up and was educated in Paisley and Leeds, moving around due to her father’s work as a University Lecturer.

After leaving school, Truss read Philosophy, Politics and Economics at Merton College, Oxford.  Whilst there, Truss was president of the Oxford University Liberal Democrats, and spoke at the 1994 Liberal Democrat conference in Brighton, before defecting to the Conservative Party in 1996.

Upon graduation, she worked for Shell and Cable & Wireless, and graduated as a management accountant, before becoming the deputy director of Reform, a right-wing think-tank based in London.

Truss unsuccessfully stood for parliament in Hemsworth in 2001, and Calder Valley in 2005, losing to the incumbent MP’s, Jon Trickett and Christine McCafferty respectively, before winning South West Norfolk in 2010, following the retirement of Christopher Fraser.

In the September reshuffle of 2012, she was appointed as Parliamentary Undersecretary of State for Education and Childcare, serving under Michael Gove, before being promoted in July 2014 to Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), replacing Owen Paterson.

The Secretary of State for DEFRA is responsible for EU and international relations, lobbying within the EU and internationally on sustainable development and climate change, Emergencies including flooding, and departmental administration.

Members of the Cabinet – Rt Hon John Whittingdale MP – Profile

John Whittingdale

John Whittingdale

John Whittingdale is the incumbent Member of Parliament for the Maldon constituency, a seat he has held since 1992.  In addition to that role, he has been the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport since May 2015.

He was born in Sherborne, Dorset, and educated at Sandroyd School, and Winchester College, before reading Economics at University College London, where he graduated with a 2:2 degree in 1982.

After graduating, Whittingdale worked within the Conservative Research Department as head of the political section.  He moved to become Special Adviser within the Department for Trade and Industry from 1984 to 1987.  He worked as Political Secretary to Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher in 1988, until she left the House of Commons in 1992.  He was awarded a OBE, in Margaret Thatcher’s resignation honours list.

His parliamentary career started with his election in 1992 for the constituency of South Colchester and Maldon, with an overall majority of 21,821 replacing John Wakeham who retired and took up a seat in the House of Lords.  Whittingdale was appointed as Parliamentary Private Secretary to the Minister of State for Education and Employment, but resigned his post after voting against his party.

Whittingdale has elections in 3 different constituencies, all representing Maldon, due to changes in electoral boundaries.  South Colchester and Maldon in 1992, Maldon and East Chelmsford between 1997 and 2005, and Maldon from 2010 onwards.  The constituency of Maldon was previously used in 1983, when it was abolished.

He returned to the front bench in 2004, with an appointment as Shadow Culture Secretary, before being made Chairman of the Culture, Media and Sport Select Committee in 2005, a role he held until May 2015, when he became Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport.


The role as Secretary of State for the Department for Culture, Media and Sport (CMS) oversees political policy in various areas of CMS including arts and culture, broadcasting, libraries, sport, tourism, telecommunication and online.


Members of the Cabinet – Rt Hon Stephen Crabb MP – Profile

Stephen Crabb MP

Stephen Crabb MP

Stephen Crabb has been the Member of Parliament for Preseli Pembrokeshire since 2005 with a majority of 607.  He previous stood for Preseli Pembrokeshire in 2001, losing out to the Labour candidate, Jackie Lawrence by 2,946 votes.

Crabb was born in Inverness in 1973, and moved to Pembrokeshire during his early childhood.  He was educated at schools in Haverfordwest, before reading Politics at the University of Bristol.  After graduating in 1995, Crabb gained an MBA at the London Business School, before working with the National Council for Voluntary Youth Services and  the London Chamber of Commerce.  Prior to his election to the House of Commons, Crabb worked as a marketing consultant.

After entering office, he was a backbench MP until 2009, where he was appointed as Opposition Whip, before being promoted to Assistant Government Whip, 2 years later.  At the 2012 reshuffle, Crabb was appointed as Parliamentary Under Secretary of State in the Wales Office, a role he held until being given the role of Secretary of State for Wales in July 2014.

Crabb retained his seat in Preseli Pembrokeshire in the 2015 General Election, with an increased majority of 4,969, but a decreased share of the vote, 40.4 per cent, down from 42.9 per cent in 2010.

As Secretary of State for Wales, the role includes overseeing Wales as a separate entity, even though it is within the United Kingdom, as there is partial devolution to Wales.


Members of the Cabinet – Rt Hon Theresa Villiers MP – Profile


Theresa Villiers

Theresa Villiers is the incumbent Member of Parliament for Chipping Barnet, and was elected in 2005 with a majority of 5,960.

Villiers was born in Chiswick in 1968, and was educated at Francis Holland School in London, before studying law at the University of Bristol, graduating with a first-class honours degree, then studying for a postgraduate degree in Civil Law at Jesus College, Oxford.    After university, Villiers qualified as a barrister at the Honourable Society of the Inner Temple, and also worked as a lecturer at King’s College, London.

Her political career started with a seat in the European Parliament, representing the London constituency from 1999 until 2005, where after being elected twice, she stood down to become the parliamentary candidate for Chipping Barnet, replacing Sir Sydney Chapman.

After 7 months on the backbenches, David Cameron promoted Villiers to the Shadow Cabinet as Shadow Chief Secretary to the Treasury, and in 2007, to the role of Shadow Secretary of State for Transport replacing Chris Grayling.  After the Conservative election victory in 2010, Villiers continued in Transport as Minister of State, supporting Phillip Hammond.

In the September 2012 re-shuffle, Villiers moved from Transport to Northern Ireland as Secretary of State, replacing Owen Paterson.

As Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, the role deals with complex issues, both current and from the past.  In addition to the overall wellbeing of Northern Ireland, in terms of economic, counter-terrorism and national security, there are international relationships, but one of the most important is to maintain and improve links with the Irish Republic.


Members of the Cabinet – The Rt Hon. the Baroness Stowell of Beeston MBE – Profile

The Rt Hon. the Baroness Stowell of Beeston MBE

The Rt Hon. the Baroness Stowell of Beeston MBE

Tina Stowell, now known as The Right Honourable, the Baroness Stowell of Beeston MBE, attends Cabinet Meetings in her role as Leader of the House of Lords.

She was born in Beeston, an area of Nottingham in 1967, and was educated at Chilwell Comprehensive School, before attending Broxtowe College of Further Education.

After leaving education, Stowell worked for the Ministry of Defence, the British Embassy in Washington DC, before returning to the United Kingdom to work in the Prime Minister’s Press Office, during John Major’s tenure.  After the Conservative General Election defeat of 1987, Stowell worked at the BBC as Head of Communications, before moving to Head of Corporate Affairs, before returning to Conservative Party as William Hague’s Deputy Chief of Staff.

Stowell was elevated to the peerage in early 2011 and given the title of Baroness Stowell of Beeston, and was made Leader of the House of Lords in 2014, and following the 2015 General Election, was promoted to be a full cabinet member.